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Annotator GeneratorJump to: Download and usage | License and citation
Annotator Generator is an examples-driven generator of fast text annotators. "Annotate" in this context means to add pronunciation or other information to each word, and/or to split text into words in a language that does not use spaces.
- You supply a corpus of pre-annotated texts for Annotator Generator to work out the rules and exceptions
- The resulting program should be able to annotate any text that contains words or phrases similar to those found in the examples
- It can output the annotations alone or it can combine them with the original text using HTML Ruby markup or simple braces
- If anything is unclear (didn't happen in the examples, or there's not enough context to figure out which example should be applied) then the program will leave it unannotated so you can pass it to a backup annotation program if you have one.
- If you have no backup annotator then try setting the
-yoption, which makes Annotator Generator try harder to find context-independent rules with context-dependent exceptions, so as to annotate as much text as possible.
- Generated annotators can act as filters for Web Adjuster; options are also provided for generating client-side annotators for Android and iOS, and a clipboard annotator for Windows and Windows Mobile, or you could format the annotations on a Unix terminal
Legal considerationsAnnotator code will contain individual words and some phrases from the original corpus (and these can be read even by people who do not have the unannotated version); with regards to copyright law, I expect the annotator code will count as an "index" to the collection, the copyright of which exists separately to that of the original collection, but laws do vary by country and I am not a solicitor so please act judiciously.
- respect network stability (i.e. wait a long time between each download),
- use the result only for mining, not for republishing the original text (so you can't publish your unprocessed crawl dumps either),
- and still respect any prohibitions against sharing whatever mining tools you made for the site (as this law is only about text mining, not about the sharing of tools).
Download and UsageDownload annogen.py; you will need Python 2 and a command prompt.
Usage: annogen.py [options]
- -h, --help
- show this help message and exit
- Filename of a text file (or a compressed .gz, .bz2 or .xz file or URL) to read the input examples from. If this is not specified, standard input is used.
- Character encoding of the input file (default utf-8)
- The string that starts a piece of text with annotation markup in the input examples; default <ruby><rb>
- The string that occurs in the middle of a piece of markup in the input examples, with the word on its left and the added markup on its right (or the other way around if mreverse is set); default </rb><rt>
- The string that ends a piece of annotation markup in the input examples; default </rt></ruby>
- -r, --mreverse
- Specifies that the annotation markup is reversed, so the text before mmid is the annotation and the text after it is the base text
- Cancels any earlier --mreverse option in Makefile variables etc
- Reference separator code used in the example input. If you want to keep example source references for each rule, you can label the input with 'references' (chapter and section numbers or whatever), and use this option to specify what keyword or other markup the input will use between each 'reference'. The name of the next reference will be whatever text immediately follows this string. Note that the reference separator, and the reference name that follows it, should not be part of the text itself and should therefore not be part of any annotation markup. If this option is not set then references will not be tracked.
- Sets what the input uses to END a reference name. The default is a single space, so that the first space after the reference-sep string will end the reference name.
- Name of a reference to be considered "high priority" for Yarowsky-like seed collocations (if these are in use). Normally the Yarowsky-like logic tries to identify a "default" annotation based on what is most common in the examples, with the exceptions indicated by collocations. If however a word is found in a high priority reference then the first annotation found in that reference will be considered the ideal "default" even if it's in a minority in the examples; everything else will be considered as an exception.
- -s, --spaces
- Set this if you are working with a language that uses whitespace in its non-markedup version (not fully tested). The default is to assume that there will not be any whitespace in the language, which is correct for Chinese and Japanese.
- Cancels any earlier --spaces option in Makefile variables etc
- -c, --capitalisation
- Don't try to normalise capitalisation in the input. Normally, to simplify the rules, the analyser will try to remove start-of-sentence capitals in annotations, so that the only remaining words with capital letters are the ones that are always capitalised such as names. (That's not perfect: some words might always be capitalised just because they never occur mid-sentence in the examples.) If this option is used, the analyser will instead try to "learn" how to predict the capitalisation of all words (including start of sentence words) from their contexts.
- Cancels any earlier --capitalisation option in Makefile variables etc
- -w, --annot-whitespace
- Don't try to normalise the use of whitespace and hyphenation in the example annotations. Normally the analyser will try to do this, to reduce the risk of missing possible rules due to minor typographical variations.
- Cancels any earlier --annot-whitespace option in Makefile variables etc
- Comma-separated list of words (without annotation markup) for which whitespace and hyphenation should always be kept even without the --annot-whitespace option. Use when you know the variation is legitimate. This option expects words to be encoded using the system locale (UTF-8 if it cannot be detected).
- Filename of an optional text file (or compressed .gz, .bz2 or .xz file) to write a copy of the normalised input for diagnostic purposes. If this is set to the same as --infile then it will be assumed the input file has already been normalised (use with care).
- Exit after normalising the input
- Cancels any earlier --normalise-only option in Makefile variables etc
- Filename of an optional text file (or compressed .gz, .bz2 or .xz file or URL) to read auxiliary "gloss" information. Each line of this should be of the form: word (tab) annotation (tab) gloss. Extra tabs in the gloss will be converted to newlines (useful if you want to quote multiple dictionaries). When the compiled annotator generates ruby markup, it will add the gloss string as a popup title whenever that word is used with that annotation (before any reannotator option is applied). The annotation field may be left blank to indicate that the gloss will appear for all other annotations of that word. The entries in glossfile do not affect the annotation process itself, so it's not necessary to completely debug glossfile's word segmentation etc.
- -C, --gloss-closure
- If any Chinese, Japanese or Korean word is missing from glossfile, search its closure of variant characters also. This option requires the cjklib package.
- Cancels any earlier --gloss-closure option in Makefile variables etc
- Name of an optional file to which to write information about words recognised by the annotator that are missing in glossfile (along with frequency counts and references, if available)
- Comma-separated list of references to hide from the glossmiss file (does not affect the glossmiss-omit option)
- If supplied, any references not matching this regular expression will be hidden from the glossmiss file (does not affect the glossmiss-omit option)
- -M, --glossmiss-omit
- Omit rules containing any word not mentioned in glossfile. Might be useful if you want to train on a text that uses proprietary terms and don't want to accidentally 'leak' those terms (assuming they're not accidentally included in glossfile also). Words may also be listed in glossfile with an empty gloss field to indicate that no gloss is available but rules using this word needn't be omitted.
- Cancels any earlier --glossmiss-omit option in Makefile variables etc
- Filename of an optional text file (or compressed .gz, .bz2 or .xz file or URL) to read extra, manually-written rules. Each line of this should be a marked-up phrase (in the input format) which is to be unconditionally added as a rule. Use this sparingly, because these rules are not taken into account when generating the others and they will be applied regardless of context (although a manual rule might fail to activate if the annotator is part-way through processing a different rule); try checking messages from --diagnose-manual.
- Filename of an optional auxiliary binary file to hold the accumulated rules. Adding .gz, .bz2 or .xz for compression is acceptable. If this is set then the rules will be written to it (in binary format) as well as to the output. Additionally, if the file already exists then rules will be read from it and incrementally updated. This might be useful if you have made some small additions to the examples and would like these to be incorporated without a complete re-run. It might not work as well as a re-run but it should be faster. If using a rulesFile then you must keep the same input (you may make small additions etc, but it won't work properly if you delete many examples or change the format between runs) and you must keep the same ybytes-related options if any.
- -n, --no-input
- Don't process new input, just use the rules that were previously stored in rulesFile. This can be used to increase speed if the only changes made are to the output options. You should still specify the input formatting options (which should not change), and any glossfile or manualrules options (which may change). For the glossmiss and summary options to work correctly, unchanged input should be provided.
- Cancels any earlier --no-input option in Makefile variables etc
- The C compiler to run if generating C and standard output is not connected to a pipe. The default is to use the "cc" command which usually redirects to your "normal" compiler. You can add options (remembering to enclose this whole parameter in quotes if it contains spaces), but if the C program is large then adding optimisation options may make the compile take a long time. If standard output is connected to a pipe, then this option is ignored because the C code will simply be written to the pipe. You can also set this option to an empty string to skip compilation. Default: cc -o annotator
- The maximum number of items allowed in an OR-expression in non table-driven code (used when ybytes is in effect). When an OR-expression becomes larger than this limit, it will be made into a function. 0 means unlimited, which works for tcc and gcc; many other compilers have limits. Default: 100
- Allow C
/C#/Java /Go if() blocks (but not switch() constructs) to be nested to unlimited depth. This probably increases the workload of the compiler's optimiser when reducing size, but may help when optimising for speed.
- Cancels any earlier --nested-if option in Makefile variables etc
- Allow C
/C#/Java /Go switch() constructs to be nested to about this depth. Default 0 tries to avoid nesting, as it slows down most C compilers for small savings in executable size. Setting 1 nests 1 level deeper which can occasionally help get around memory problems with Java compilers. -1 means nest to unlimited depth, which is not recommended. Setting this to anything other than 0 implies --nested-if also.
- Character encoding to use in the generated parser and rules summary (default utf-8, must be ASCII-compatible i.e. not utf-16)
- -S, --summary-only
- Don't generate a parser, just write the rules summary to standard output
- Cancels any earlier --summary-only option in Makefile variables etc
- -N, --no-summary
- Don't add a large rules-summary comment at the end of the parser code
- Cancels any earlier --no-summary option in Makefile variables etc
- -O SUMMARY_OMIT, --summary-omit=SUMMARY_OMIT
- Filename of a text file (or a compressed .gz, .bz2 or .xz file or URL) specifying what should be omitted from the rules summary. Each line should be a word or phrase, a tab, and its annotation (without the mstart
/mmid /mend markup). If any rule in the summary exactly matches any of the lines in this text file, then that rule will be omitted from the summary (but still included in the parser). Use for example to take out of the summary any entries that correspond to things you already have in your dictionary, so you can see what's new.
- The maximum number of example references to record in each summary line, if references are being recorded (0 means unlimited). Default is 3.
- -R, --norefs
- Don't write references in the rules summary (or the glossmiss file). Use this if you need to specify reference-sep and ref-name-end for the ref-pri option but you don't actually want references in the summary (which speeds up summary generation slightly). This option is automatically turned on if --no-input is specified.
- Cancels any earlier --norefs option in Makefile variables etc
- -E, --newlines-reset
- Have the annotator reset its state on every newline byte. By default newlines do not affect state such as whether a space is required before the next word, so that if the annotator is used with Web Adjuster's htmlText option (which defaults to using newline separators) the spacing should be handled sensibly when there is HTML markup in mid-sentence.
- Cancels any earlier --newlines-reset option in Makefile variables etc
- -z, --compress
- Compress annotation strings in the C code. This compression is designed for fast on-the-fly decoding, so it saves only a limited amount of space (typically 10-20%) but might help if RAM is short; see also --data-driven.
- Cancels any earlier --compress option in Makefile variables etc
- [Deprecated] Include Objective-C code for an iOS app that opens a web-browser component and annotates the text on every page it loads. The initial page is specified by this option: it can be a URL, or a markup fragment starting with < to hard-code the contents of the page. Also provided is a custom URL scheme to annotate the local clipboard. You will need Xcode to compile the app; see the start of the generated C file for instructions. If Xcode runs out of space, try using --data-driven. The --ios option has been deprecated because it relies on a component called UIWebView which Apple have deprecated (ITMS-90809). Since I do not have the necessary equipment to test a rewrite with WKWebView, nor am I aware of Apple's App Store having ever accepted an app from an Annogen user, I do not now plan to invest time in migrating the code from UIWebView to WKWebView, and if I ever find out Apple removed UIWebView altogether then I will probably delete the --ios option (unless somebody sends me a patch to fix it).
- -D, --data-driven
- Cancels any earlier --data-driven option in Makefile variables etc
- -F, --fast-assemble
- Skip opcode compaction when using data-driven (slightly speeds up compilation, at the expense of larger code size)
- Cancels any earlier --fast-assemble option in Makefile variables etc
- -Z, --zlib
- Cancels any earlier --zlib option in Makefile variables etc
- -l, --library
- Instead of generating C code that reads and writes standard input
/output, generate a C library suitable for loading into Python via ctypes. This can be used for example to preload a filter into Web Adjuster to cut process-startup delays.
- Cancels any earlier --library option in Makefile variables etc
- -W, --windows-clipboard
- Include C code to read the clipboard on Windows or Windows Mobile and to write an annotated HTML file and launch a browser, instead of using the default cross-platform command-line C wrapper. See the start of the generated C file for instructions on how to compile for Windows or Windows Mobile.
- Cancels any earlier --windows-clipboard option in Makefile variables etc
- -#, --c-sharp
- Instead of generating C code, generate C# (not quite as efficient as the C code but close; might be useful for adding an annotator to a C# project; see comments at the start for usage)
- Cancels any earlier --c-sharp option in Makefile variables etc
- Instead of generating C code, generate Java, and place the *.java files in the directory specified by this option. See --android for example use. The last part of the directory should be made up of the package name; a double slash (//) should separate the rest of the path from the package name, e.g. --java=/path
/to /wherever//org /example /package and the main class will be called Annotator.
- URL for an Android app to browse. If this is set, code is generated for an Android app which starts a browser with that URL as the start page, and annotates the text on every page it loads. Use file:///android_asset
- File to use as a template for Android start HTML. This option implies --android=file:///android_asset
/index.html and generates that index.html from the file specified (or from nothing if the special filename 'blank' is used). The template file may include URL_BOX_GOES_HERE to show a URL entry box and related items (offline-clipboard link etc) in the page. This version also enables better zoom controls on Android 4+ and a visible version stamp (which, if the device is in 'developer mode', you may double-tap on to show missing glosses).
- [Deprecated] When generating an Android app, assume the build environment is older than the mid-2016 release (SDK 24). Apps compiled in this way are no longer allowed on "Play Store" unless you also set --android-https-only, since the extra configuration for non-HTTPS in Play Store's newly-required Target API needs at least version 24 of the SDK to compile. This option is deprecated because you should be able to install a newer SDK on a virtual machine if your main OS cannot be upgraded (e.g. on a 2011 Mac stuck on MacOS 10.7, I used VirtualBox 4.3.4, Vagrant 1.9.5, Debian 8 Jessie and SSH with X11 forwarding to install Android Studio 3.5 from 2019).
- Cancels any earlier --android-pre-2016 option in Makefile variables etc
- [Deprecated] When generating an Android app, let Android 9+ restrict it to HTTPS-only URLs. This allows the app to be compiled in build environments older than the mid-2016 release (SDK 24) while still being allowed on the Play Store, but it restricts functionality. Deprecated because it's possible to install a newer build environment on a virtual machine (see comments on --android-pre-2016)
- Cancels any earlier --android-https-only option in Makefile variables etc
- -L, --pleco-hanping
- In the Android app, make popup definitions link to Pleco or Hanping if installed
- Cancels any earlier --pleco-hanping option in Makefile variables etc
- Android bookmarks: comma-separated list of package names that share our bookmarks. If this is not specified, the browser will not be given a bookmarks function. If it is set to the same value as the package specified in --java, bookmarks are kept in just this Android app. If it is set to a comma-separated list of packages that have also been generated by annogen (presumably with different annotation types), and if each one has the same android:sharedUserId attribute in AndroidManifest.xml's 'manifest' tag (you'll need to add this manually), and if the same certificate is used to sign all of them, then bookmarks can be shared across the set of browser apps. But beware the following two issues: (1) adding an android:sharedUserId attribute to an app that has already been released without one causes some devices to refuse the update with a 'cannot install' message (details via adb logcat; affected users would need to uninstall and reinstall instead of update, and some of them may not notice the instruction to do so); (2) this has not been tested with Google's new "App Bundle" arrangement, and may be broken if the Bundle results in APKs being signed by a different key. In June 2019 Play Console started issuing warnings if you release an APK instead of a Bundle, even though the "size savings" they mention are under 1% for annogen-generated apps.
- -e, --epub
- When generating an Android browser, make it also respond to requests to open EPUB files. This results in an app that requests the 'read external storage' permission on Android versions below 6, so if you have already released a version without EPUB support then devices running Android 5.x or below will not auto-update past this change until the user notices the update notification and approves the extra permission.
- Cancels any earlier --epub option in Makefile variables etc
- When generating an Android browser, include code to provide a Print option (usually print to PDF) and a simple highlight-selection option. The Print option will require Android 4.4, but the app should still run without it on earlier versions of Android.
- Cancels any earlier --android-print option in Makefile variables etc
- When generating an Android browser, include an option to convert the selection to audio using this URL as a prefix, e.g. https://example.org
/speak.cgi?text= (use for languages not likely to be supported by the device itself). Optionally follow the URL with a space (quote carefully) and a maximum number of words to read in each user request. Setting a limit is recommended, or somebody somewhere will likely try 'Select All' on a whole book or something and create load problems. You should set a limit server-side too of course.
- Whitespace-separated list of URL prefixes to offer to be a browser for, when a matching URL is opened by another Android application
- Extra CSS to inject into sites to fix things in the Android or iOS browser app. You may also specify a file to read --firstname.lastname@example.org
- User-visible name of the Android app
- Assume the code has already been generated by a previous run, and just run the compiler
- Cancels any earlier --compile-only option in Makefile variables etc
- -6, --js-6bit
- Cancels any earlier --js-6bit option in Makefile variables etc
- -8, --js-octal
- Cancels any earlier --js-octal option in Makefile variables etc
- -9, --ignore-ie8
- Cancels any earlier --ignore-ie8 option in Makefile variables etc
- -u, --js-utf8
- Cancels any earlier --js-utf8 option in Makefile variables etc
- Instead of generating C code, generate Dart. This might be useful if you want to run an annotator in a Flutter application.
- Cancels any earlier --dart option in Makefile variables etc
- When generating Dart code, put annotator data into a separate file and open it using this pathname. Not compatible with Dart's "Web app" option, but might save space in a Flutter app (especially along with --zlib)
- -Y, --python
- Cancels any earlier --python option in Makefile variables etc
- Package name for a Go library to generate instead of C code. See comments in the generated file for how to run this on AppEngine.
- Shell command through which to pipe each word of the original text to obtain new annotation for that word. This might be useful as a quick way of generating a new annotator (e.g. for a different topolect) while keeping the information about word separation and
/or glosses from the previous annotator, but it is limited to commands that don't need to look beyond the boundaries of each word. If the command is prefixed by a # character, it will be given the word's existing annotation instead of its original text, and if prefixed by ## it will be given text#annotation. The command should treat each line of its input independently, and both its input and its output should be in the encoding specified by --outcode.
- -A, --reannotate-caps
- When using --reannotator, make sure to capitalise any word it returns that began with a capital on input
- Cancels any earlier --reannotate-caps option in Makefile variables etc
- Assume annotation (or reannotator output) contains multiple alternatives separated by # (e.g. pinyin#Yale) and include code to select one by number at runtime (starting from 0). This is to save on total space when shipping multiple annotators that share the same word grouping and gloss data, differing only in the transcription of each word.
- Cancels any earlier --sharp-multi option in Makefile variables etc
- -o, --allow-overlaps
- Normally, the analyser avoids generating rules that could overlap with each other in a way that would leave the program not knowing which one to apply. If a short rule would cause overlaps, the analyser will prefer to generate a longer rule that uses more context, and if even the entire phrase cannot be made into a rule without causing overlaps then the analyser will give up on trying to cover that phrase. This option allows the analyser to generate rules that could overlap, as long as none of the overlaps would cause actual problems in the example phrases. Thus more of the examples can be covered, at the expense of a higher risk of ambiguity problems when applying the rules to other texts. See also the -y option.
- Cancels any earlier --allow-overlaps option in Makefile variables etc
- -P, --primitive
- Don't bother with any overlap or conflict checks at all, just make a rule for each word. The resulting parser is not likely to be useful, but the summary might be.
- Cancels any earlier --primitive option in Makefile variables etc
- -y YBYTES, --ybytes=YBYTES
- Look for candidate Yarowsky seed-collocations within this number of bytes of the end of a word. If this is set then overlaps and rule conflicts will be allowed when seed collocations can be used to distinguish between them, and the analysis is likely to be faster. Markup examples that are completely separate (e.g. sentences from different sources) must have at least this number of (non-whitespace) bytes between them.
- Extend the Yarowsky seed-collocation search to check over larger ranges up to this maximum. If this is set then several ranges will be checked in an attempt to determine the best one for each word, but see also ymax-threshold.
- Limits the length of word that receives the narrower-range Yarowsky search when ybytes-max is in use. For words longer than this, the search will go directly to ybytes-max. This is for languages where the likelihood of a word's annotation being influenced by its immediate neighbours more than its distant collocations increases for shorter words, and less is to be gained by comparing different ranges when processing longer words. Setting this to 0 means no limit, i.e. the full range will be explored on all Yarowsky checks.
- The increment value for the loop between ybytes and ybytes-max
- -k, --warn-yarowsky
- Warn when absolutely no distinguishing Yarowsky seed collocations can be found for a word in the examples
- Cancels any earlier --warn-yarowsky option in Makefile variables etc
- -K, --yarowsky-all
- Accept Yarowsky seed collocations even from input characters that never occur in annotated words (this might include punctuation and example-separation markup)
- Cancels any earlier --yarowsky-all option in Makefile variables etc
- Report the details of seed-collocation false positives if there are a large number of matches and at most this number of false positives (default 1). Occasionally these might be due to typos in the corpus, so it might be worth a check.
- -1, --single-words
- Do not consider any rule longer than 1 word, although it can still have Yarowsky seed collocations if -y is set. This speeds up the search, but at the expense of thoroughness. You might want to use this in conjuction with -y to make a parser quickly. It is like -P (primitive) but without removing the conflict checks.
- Cancels any earlier --single-words option in Makefile variables etc
- Limits the number of words in a rule; rules longer than this are not considered. 0 means no limit. --single-words is equivalent to --max-words=1. If you need to limit the search time, and are using -y, it should suffice to use --single-words for a quick annotator or --max-words=5 for a more thorough one.
- Periodically save checkpoint files in the specified directory. These files can save time when starting again after a reboot (and it's easier than setting up Condor etc). As well as a protection against random reboots, this can be used for scheduled reboots: if file called ExitASAP appears in the checkpoint directory, annogen will checkpoint, remove the ExitASAP file, and exit. After a run has completed, the checkpoint directory should be removed, unless you want to re-do the last part of the run for some reason.
- -d DIAGNOSE, --diagnose=DIAGNOSE
- Output some diagnostics for the specified word. Use this option to help answer "why doesn't it have a rule for...?" issues. This option expects the word without markup and uses the system locale (UTF-8 if it cannot be detected).
- Maximum number of phrases to print diagnostics for (0 means unlimited); can be useful when trying to diagnose a common word in rulesFile without re-evaluating all phrases that contain it. Default: 10
- -m, --diagnose-manual
- Check and diagnose potential failures of --manualrules
- Cancels any earlier --diagnose-manual option in Makefile variables etc
- -q, --diagnose-quick
- Ignore all phrases that do not contain the word specified by the --diagnose option, for getting a faster (but possibly less accurate) diagnostic. The generated annotator is not likely to be useful when this option is present. You may get quick diagnostics without these disadvantages by loading a --rulesFile instead.
- Cancels any earlier --diagnose-quick option in Makefile variables etc
- Instead of generating an annotator, use the input examples to generate a list of (non-annotated) words with priority numbers, a higher number meaning the word should have greater preferential treatment in ambiguities, and write it to this file (or compressed .gz, .bz2 or .xz file). If the file provided already exists, it will be updated, thus you can amend an existing usage-frequency list or similar (although the final numbers are priorities and might no longer match usage-frequency exactly). The purpose of this option is to help if you have an existing word-priority-based text segmenter and wish to update its data from the examples; this approach might not be as good as the Yarowsky-like one (especially when the same word has multiple readings to choose from), but when there are integration issues with existing code you might at least be able to improve its word-priority data.
- -t, --time-estimate
- Estimate time to completion. The code to do this is unreliable and is prone to underestimate. If you turn it on, its estimate is displayed at the end of the status line as days, hours or minutes.
- Cancels any earlier --time-estimate option in Makefile variables etc
- -0, --single-core
- Use only one CPU core even when others are available. If this option is not set, multiple cores are used if a 'futures' package is installed or if run under MPI or SCOOP; this currently requires --checkpoint + shared filespace, and is currently used only for large collocation checks in limited circumstances. Single-core saves on CPU power consumption, but if the computer is set to switch itself off at the end of the run then total energy used is generally less if you allow it to run multicore and reach that switchoff sooner.
- Cancels any earlier --single-core option in Makefile variables etc
- -p STATUS_PREFIX, --status-prefix=STATUS_PREFIX
- Label to add at the start of the status line, for use if you batch-run annogen in multiple configurations and want to know which one is currently running
LicenseAnnotator Generator is free software licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (this is also the license used by Web Adjuster). If you use it in a good project, I'd appreciate hearing about it.
CitationIf you need to cite a peer-reviewed paper:
Silas S. Brown. Web Annotation with Modified-Yarowsky and Other Algorithms. Overload 112 (December 2012) pp.4-7
All material © Silas S. Brown unless otherwise stated.
Android is a trademark of Google LLC.
Apache is a registered trademark of The Apache Software Foundation.
AppEngine is possibly a trademark of Google LLC.
Apple is a trademark of Apple Inc.
Debian is a trademark owned by Software in the Public Interest, Inc.
Google is a trademark of Google LLC.
Google Play is a trademark of Google LLC.
Java is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation in the US and possibly other countries.
Mac is a trademark of Apple Inc.
Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
Python is a trademark of the Python Software Foundation.
VirtualBox is a trademark registered by Oracle in various countries.
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
Any other trademarks I mentioned without realising are trademarks of their respective holders.